Real Life Christianity

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The Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea finally pronounced in favor of icons. Previously, higher education had been the domain of Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools Scholae monasticae , led by monks and nuns. Accompanying the rise of the "new towns" throughout Europe, mendicant orders were founded, bringing the consecrated religious life out of the monastery and into the new urban setting. The two principal mendicant movements were the Franciscans [] and the Dominicans , [] founded by St. Francis and St. Dominic , respectively. Both orders made significant contributions to the development of the great universities of Europe.

Another new order was the Cistercians , whose large isolated monasteries spearheaded the settlement of former wilderness areas. In this period, church building and ecclesiastical architecture reached new heights, culminating in the orders of Romanesque and Gothic architecture and the building of the great European cathedrals. From under the pontificate of Urban II , the Crusades were launched. The Crusades ultimately failed to stifle Islamic aggression and even contributed to Christian enmity with the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade.

The two sides disagreed on a number of administrative, liturgical and doctrinal issues, most notably papal primacy of jurisdiction. However, the Catholic Church has achieved union with various smaller eastern churches. In the thirteenth century, a new emphasis on Jesus' suffering, exemplified by the Franciscans' preaching, had the consequence of turning worshippers' attention towards Jews, on whom Christians had placed the blame for Jesus' death.

Christianity's limited tolerance of Jews was not new—Augustine of Hippo said that Jews should not be allowed to enjoy the citizenship that Christians took for granted—but the growing antipathy towards Jews was a factor that led to the expulsion of Jews from England in , the first of many such expulsions in Europe. Beginning around , following the crusade against Cathar heresy, [] various institutions, broadly referred to as the Inquisition , were established with the aim of suppressing heresy and securing religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity through conversion and prosecution.

The 15th-century Renaissance brought about a renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. During the Reformation , Martin Luther posted the Ninety-five Theses against the sale of indulgences.

In the Edict of Worms condemned and excommunicated Luther and his followers, resulting in the schism of the Western Christendom into several branches. Other reformers like Zwingli , Oecolampadius , Calvin , Knox , and Arminius further criticized Catholic teaching and worship. These challenges developed into the movement called Protestantism , which repudiated the primacy of the pope , the role of tradition, the seven sacraments , and other doctrines and practices.

Beginning in , the monasteries throughout England, Wales and Ireland were dissolved. Their activity brought about the Radical Reformation , which gave birth to various Anabaptist denominations. Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church engaged in a substantial process of reform and renewal, known as the Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform.


During the following centuries, competition between Catholicism and Protestantism became deeply entangled with political struggles among European states. Meanwhile, the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in brought about a new wave of missionary activity. Partly from missionary zeal, but under the impetus of colonial expansion by the European powers, Christianity spread to the Americas, Oceania, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

Throughout Europe, the division caused by the Reformation led to outbreaks of religious violence and the establishment of separate state churches in Europe. Lutheranism spread into the northern, central, and eastern parts of present-day Germany, Livonia , and Scandinavia. Anglicanism was established in England in Calvinism and its varieties, such as Presbyterianism , were introduced in Scotland, the Netherlands, Hungary, Switzerland, and France.

Arminianism gained followers in the Netherlands and Frisia. Ultimately, these differences led to the outbreak of conflicts in which religion played a key factor. These events intensified the Christian debate on persecution and toleration. In the era known as the Great Divergence , when in the West, the Age of Enlightenment and the scientific revolution brought about great societal changes, Christianity was confronted with various forms of skepticism and with certain modern political ideologies , such as versions of socialism and liberalism.

Especially pressing in Europe was the formation of nation states after the Napoleonic era.

God’s Word in practice

In all European countries, different Christian denominations found themselves in competition to greater or lesser extents with each other and with the state. Variables were the relative sizes of the denominations and the religious, political, and ideological orientation of the states. Urs Altermatt of the University of Fribourg , looking specifically at Catholicism in Europe, identifies four models for the European nations.

In traditionally Catholic-majority countries such as Belgium, Spain, and Austria, to some extent, religious and national communities are more or less identical. Cultural symbiosis and separation are found in Poland, the Republic of Ireland, and Switzerland, all countries with competing denominations. Competition is found in Germany, the Netherlands, and again Switzerland, all countries with minority Catholic populations, which to a greater or lesser extent identified with the nation.

Finally, separation between religion again, specifically Catholicism and the state is found to a great degree in France and Italy, countries where the state actively opposed itself to the authority of the Catholic Church. The combined factors of the formation of nation states and ultramontanism , especially in Germany and the Netherlands, but also in England to a much lesser extent, [] often forced Catholic churches, organizations, and believers to choose between the national demands of the state and the authority of the Church, specifically the papacy. This conflict came to a head in the First Vatican Council , and in Germany would lead directly to the Kulturkampf , where liberals and Protestants under the leadership of Bismarck managed to severely restrict Catholic expression and organization.

Christian commitment in Europe dropped as modernity and secularism came into their own, [] particularly in the Czech Republic and Estonia , [] while religious commitments in America have been generally high in comparison to Europe. With around 2. This masks a major shift in the demographics of Christianity; large increases in the developing world have been accompanied by substantial declines in the developed world, mainly in Europe and North America.

As a percentage of Christians, the Catholic Church and Orthodoxy both Eastern and Oriental are declining in parts of the world though Catholicism is growing in Asia, in Africa, vibrant in Eastern Europe, etc. Christianity is the predominant religion in Europe, the Americas, and Southern Africa. The Christian population is not decreasing in Brazil, the Southern United States, [] and the province of Alberta, Canada, [] but the percentage is decreasing. In countries such as Australia [] and New Zealand, [] the Christian population are declining in both numbers and percentage.

However, there are many charismatic movements that have become well established over large parts of the world, especially Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Mary's University estimated about In most countries in the developed world, church attendance among people who continue to identify themselves as Christians has been falling over the last few decades.

There are numerous other countries, such as Cyprus, which although do not have an established church , still give official recognition and support to a specific Christian denomination. Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue. Nations with Christianity as their state religion detailed map; see legend for more. However, there are other present [] and historical [] Christian groups that do not fit neatly into one of these primary categories.

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There is a diversity of doctrines and liturgical practices among groups calling themselves Christian. These groups may vary ecclesiologically in their views on a classification of Christian denominations. By reason of Protestant ecclesiology , ever since its emergence in the 16th century, Protestantism comprises the widest diversity of groupings and practices.

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The Anabaptist tradition was largely ostracized by the other Protestant parties at the time, but has achieved a measure of affirmation in contemporary history. Adventist , Baptist , Methodist , Pentecostal , and other Protestant confessions arose in the following centuries. The Catholic Church consists of those particular churches , headed by bishops, in communion with the pope , the bishop of Rome, as its highest authority in matters of faith, morality, and Church governance.

The 2, sees [] are grouped into 24 particular autonomous Churches the largest of which being the Latin Church , each with its own distinct traditions regarding the liturgy and the administering of sacraments.

The Eastern Orthodox Church consists of those churches in communion with the patriarchal sees of the East, such as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. A number of conflicts with Western Christianity over questions of doctrine and authority culminated in the Great Schism. Eastern Orthodoxy is the second largest single denomination in Christianity, with an estimated — million adherents.

The Oriental Orthodox Churches also called "Old Oriental" churches are those eastern churches that recognize the first three ecumenical councils— Nicaea , Constantinople , and Ephesus —but reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon and instead espouse a Miaphysite christology. The Assyrian Church of the East , with an unbroken patriarchate established in the 17th century, is an independent Eastern Christian denomination which claims continuity from the Church of the East —in parallel to the Catholic patriarchate established in the 16th century that evolved into the Chaldean Catholic Church , an Eastern Catholic church in full communion with the Pope.

It is an Eastern Christian church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East. Largely aniconic and not in communion with any other church, it belongs to the eastern branch of Syriac Christianity , and uses the East Syriac Rite in its liturgy. Its main spoken language is Syriac , a dialect of Eastern Aramaic , and the majority of its adherents are ethnic Assyrians. It is officially headquartered in the city of Erbil in northern Iraqi Kurdistan , and its original area also spreads into south-eastern Turkey and north-western Iran, corresponding to ancient Assyria.

Its hierarchy is composed of metropolitan bishops and diocesan bishops , while lower clergy consists of priests and deacons , who serve in dioceses eparchies and parishes throughout the Middle East, India, North America, Oceania, and Europe including the Caucasus and Russia. It is one of the Assyrian churches that claim continuity with the historical Patriarchate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon —the Church of the East, one of the oldest Christian churches in Mesopotamia. In , the Edict of Worms condemned Martin Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas.

The Protestation at Speyer against being excommunicated gave this party the name Protestantism. Luther's primary theological heirs are known as Lutherans. Zwingli and Calvin's heirs are far broader denominationally, and are referred to as the Reformed tradition.

Michael Coren: Ten Lies About Christianity

Some, but not all Anglicans consider themselves both Protestant and Catholic. Since the Anglican, Lutheran, and the Reformed branches of Protestantism originated for the most part in cooperation with the government, these movements are termed the " Magisterial Reformation ".

A Church for Real Life

On the other hand, groups such as the Anabaptists , who often do not consider themselves to be Protestant, originated in the Radical Reformation , which though sometimes protected under Acts of Toleration , do not trace their history back to any state church. The term Protestant also refers to any churches which formed later, with either the Magisterial or Radical traditions.

In the 18th century, for example, Methodism grew out of Anglican minister John Wesley 's evangelical and revival movement. Estimates of the total number of Protestants are very uncertain, but it seems clear that Protestantism is the second largest major group of Christians after Catholicism in number of followers, although the Eastern Orthodox Church is larger than any single Protestant denomination.

Stoicism and Christianity: Lessons, Similarities and Differences

Some groups of individuals who hold basic Protestant tenets identify themselves simply as "Christians" or " born-again Christians". They typically distance themselves from the confessionalism and creedalism of other Christian communities [] by calling themselves " non-denominational " or " evangelical ". Often founded by individual pastors, they have little affiliation with historic denominations.

The Second Great Awakening , a period of religious revival that occurred in the United States during the early s, saw the development of a number of unrelated churches. They generally saw themselves as restoring the original church of Jesus Christ rather than reforming one of the existing churches. Some of the churches originating during this period are historically connected to early 19th-century camp meetings in the Midwest and upstate New York.

Other groups originating in this time period include the Christadelphians and the previously mentioned Latter Day Saints movement. While the churches originating in the Second Great Awakening have some superficial similarities, their doctrine and practices vary significantly. Various smaller Independent Catholic communities, such as the Old Catholic Church , include the word Catholic in their title, and arguably have more or less liturgical practices in common with the Catholic Church , but are no longer in full communion with the Holy See. Spiritual Christians , such as the Doukhobor and Molokan , broke from the Russian Orthodox Church and maintain close association with Mennonites and Quakers due to similar religious practices; all of these groups are furthermore collectively considered to be peace churches due to their belief in pacifism.

Messianic Judaism or the Messianic Movement is the name of a Christian movement comprising a number of streams, whose members may consider themselves Jewish. The movement originated in the s and s, and it blends elements of religious Jewish practice with evangelical Christianity. Messianic Judaism affirms Christian creeds such as the messiahship and divinity of "Yeshua" the Hebrew name of Jesus and the Triune Nature of God, while also adhering to some Jewish dietary laws and customs.

Esoteric Christians regard Christianity as a mystery religion , [] [] and profess the existence and possession of certain esoteric doctrines or practices, [] [] hidden from the public but accessible only to a narrow circle of "enlightened", "initiated", or highly educated people. Western culture , throughout most of its history, has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture , and a large portion of the population of the Western Hemisphere can be described as cultural Christians.