Hitlers Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and his Regime, Romania, 1940 -1944

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Hungary receives 11, sq, km in Slovakia and Ruthenia. Poland acquires Tesin and two small areas in northern Slovakia. Carpatho-Ukraine declares independence but is occupied by Hungarian troops along with eastern Slovakia.

Pats and J. Laidoner take over government in a bloodless coup to forestall implementation of newly approved constitution sponsored by fascist veterans organization led by Arturs Sirk.

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The so called "Period of Silence" commences. The Riigikogu parliament is adjourned and the country is governed under a declaration of defence. Restrictions imposed on the press. Pats elected president.

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June 17 - Estonia occupied by Soviet troops and incorporated in the Soviet Union shortly thereafter. The "Beer Hall putsch" fails. Hitler is arrested.

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During his imprisonment he writes Mein Kampf. NSDAP polls KDP increases its representation Dec. Nazis blame the fire on Communists Feb. State governments not controlled by Nazis are dissolved and subordinated to control of the central government. Hitler implements a policy of Gleichschaltung, subordinating all independent institutions to Nazi control. Civil service and judiciary purged of "non Aryans". State governments replaced by Reich governors directly responsible to Hitler.

Trade unions dissolved July - Germany declared legally, a one party National Socialist state. Hitler combines offices of President and Chancellor in violation of emergency decrees. The combination of offices is subsequently approved in a national plebiscite. The Army swears an oath of allegiance pledging unconditional obedience to Hitler. Nuremburg laws strip Jews of citizenship and restrict relationships between "Aryans" and Jews. Athlets from autocratic nations are unusually successful.

Monarchy abolished following Greek loses in war with Turkey.

Conducatorul romaniei in 1940 what became protected

The dozen years of the 1st Republic marked by a series of coups and dictatorships. Monarchy restored King George II returns after referendum marked by fraud. Italy invades Greece but Italians are driven back across border into Albania. Karolyi resigns rather than accept the new boundaries.

Kun fled, first to Vienna, and finally to the Soviet Union where he was executed in the s in a Stalinist purge. Admiral Miklos Horthy, elected Regent with power to appoint the prime minister, veto legislation, dissolve the parliament and command the armed forces.

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  4. July - Horthy appoints Pal Teleki prime minister. Teleki government sets quotas limiting admission of Jew to universities. Gombos publicly renounces the vehement anti-semitism he earlier espoused. Gombos dies a month later. Hungary renounces restrictions on size of its armed forces. June - Arrow Cross, the Hungarian equivalent of the Nazi Party, finishes second in parliamentry elections. Versailles conference refuses Italian demands for territory in Dalmatia and the city of Fiume. Benito Mussolini founds Fascisti di Combattimento. Treaty of Rapallo cedes Dalmatia to Yugoslavia and declares Fiume a "free city".

    Mussolini is one of 35 Fascisti elected to a seat in parliamentary elections. Fascisti movement transformed into the Partito Nazionale Fascista. King Victor Emmanuel invites Mussolini to form a government. Mussolini assumes dictatorial powers, dissolves opposition parties, introduces press censorship and changes to electoral process. Il Duce, "the leader", as Mussolini styles himself forestalls any challengers by assuming control of as many as seven ministries simultaneously including, interior, foreign affairs, colonies and armed forces as well as leadership of the Fascist Party and its militia.

    Istituto per la Riconstruzione Industriale created beginning era of large scale public intervention in private economy. July 25 - Mussolini dismissed as premier after American invasion of Sicily. Marshal Pietro Badoglio becomes premier. Italy declares war on Germany Mussolini is rescued from prison by German troops and forms a puppet government "Repubblica Sociale Italiana" in German occupied portion of northern Italy.

    June 17 - Latvia occupied by Soviet troops and incorporated into the Soviet Union shortly thereafter. Liberals and Leftists expelled from the Seimas parliament. Smetona elected president with Augustinas Voldemas as premier. Oct - Lithuania signs mutual assistance treaty with the Soviet Union. Years of friction with Germany over city of Memel having raised fears of German invasion.

    New assembly requests incorporation of Lithuania into the Soviet Union Aug. The Pilsudski regime governed with a mix of democratic and dictatorial elements but after his death in drifted towards more open authoritarianism. Salazar accepts the post after being granted complete control of all expenditures by all government ministries. May 28 - Salazar delivers a speech calling for the implementation of a new constitution to create an authoritarian order he calls the Estado Novo New State.

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    July 5 - Military government of General de Oliveira resigns. Salazar appointed prime minister. New constitution, dictated by Salazar, establishes the "New State". Salazar continues as prime minister and leader of the sole legal political party, the Uniao Nacional. Legislative and executive power vested in Salazar.

    The National Assembly is allowed to initiate legislation only if it does not involve expenditure of government funds. Salazar expresses confidence in ultimate victory of the Allies. Portugal remains neutral but maintains links to Britain. The Iron Guard becomes the largest fascist party in the Balkans. Jews are barred from the civil service and the army and forbidden to buy property and the practice of certain professions. Romania submits.

    German and Italian foreign ministers meet with the Romanians in Vienna and present an ultimatum demanding the return of Transylvania to Hungary. Romania again submits. New restrictions imposed on Jews, Greeks and Armenian businessmen.

    Bolsheviks call on supporter to defend the Petrograd Soviet from this counter revolutionary action.