Globalization: State of the Art and Perspectives

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Online Table of contents only Broken link? In the Library Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. Order a copy Copyright or permission restrictions may apply. We will contact you if necessary. This slowed down from the s onward due to the World Wars and the Cold War , [53] but picked up again in the s and s. The migration and movement of people can also be highlighted as a prominent feature of the globalization process.

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In the period between and , the proportion of the labor force migrating approximately doubled. Most migration occurred between the developing countries and least developed countries LDCs. The collapse of the Soviet Union not only ended the Cold War's division of the world — it also left the United States its sole policeman and an unfettered advocate of free market.

One influential event was the late s recession , which was associated with lower growth in areas such as cross-border phone calls and Skype usage or even temporarily negative growth in areas such as trade of global interconnectedness. It shows that the depth of global integration fell by about one-tenth after , but by had recovered well above its pre-crash peak. Globalized society offers a complex web of forces and factors that bring people, cultures, markets, beliefs, and practices into increasingly greater proximity to one another.


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Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross- border movement of goods, services, technology, and capital. Economic globalization comprises: globalization of production; which refers to the obtainment of goods and services from a particular source from different locations around the globe to benefit from difference in cost and quality.

Likewise, it also comprises globalization of markets; which is defined as the union of different and separate markets into a massive global marketplace. Economic globalization also includes [66] competition, technology, and corporations and industries. Current globalization trends can be largely accounted for by developed economies integrating with less developed economies by means of foreign direct investment , the reduction of trade barriers as well as other economic reforms, and, in many cases, immigration.

Before the current phase of globalization, the United States of America was a dominant country which held the essential economic power in world exports. But with the advent of globalization, Germany, Japan, South Korea and China have significantly become serious counterparts by challenging the position of America. Globalization and its Impacts on the World Economic Development. Albeit some countries in the world are for the idea that one country can economically dominate others and govern the entire world, now the institutions like United Nations Organization, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization and World Bank are considerably share the economic power and monitoring the balance of power distribution by regulating the relationship between different countries and governing issues of Justice, Human relations or political factors.

International standards have made trade in goods and services more efficient. An example of such standard is the intermodal container. Containerization dramatically reduced transport of its costs, supported the post-war boom in international trade , and was a major element in globalization. A multinational corporation or worldwide enterprise [67] is an organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in one or more countries other than their home country.

A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement FTA. Arguably the most significant free-trade area in the world is the European Union , a politico - economic union of 28 member states that are primarily located in Europe. The EU has developed European Single Market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states.

EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, [71]. Trade facilitation looks at how procedures and controls governing the movement of goods across national borders can be improved to reduce associated cost burdens and maximise efficiency while safeguarding legitimate regulatory objectives.

Global trade in services is also significant. For example, in India , business process outsourcing has been described as the "primary engine of the country's development over the next few decades, contributing broadly to GDP growth, employment growth, and poverty alleviation". William I.

Globalisation and Environmental Stewardship: A Global Governance Perspective

Robinson 's theoretical approach to globalization is a critique of Wallerstein's World Systems Theory. He believes that the global capital experienced today is due to a new and distinct form of globalization which began in the s. Robinson argues not only are economic activities expanded across national boundaries but also there is a transnational fragmentation of these activities. This means that one pair of shoes can be produced by six different countries, each contributing to a part of the production process.

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Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings, and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations. This has added to processes of commodity exchange and colonization which have a longer history of carrying cultural meaning around the globe. The circulation of cultures enables individuals to partake in extended social relations that cross national and regional borders. The creation and expansion of such social relations is not merely observed on a material level.

Cultural globalization involves the formation of shared norms and knowledge with which people associate their individual and collective cultural identities. It brings increasing interconnectedness among different populations and cultures. Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures.

Intercultural communication is a related field of study. Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas , styles , religions , technologies , languages etc. Cultural globalization has increased cross-cultural contacts, but may be accompanied by a decrease in the uniqueness of once-isolated communities. For example, sushi is available in Germany as well as Japan, but Euro-Disney outdraws the city of Paris, potentially reducing demand for "authentic" French pastry.

Globalization has expanded recreational opportunities by spreading pop culture, particularly via the Internet and satellite television. Religions were among the earliest cultural elements to globalize, being spread by force, migration, evangelists , imperialists, and traders. Christianity , Islam , Buddhism , and more recently sects such as Mormonism are among those religions which have taken root and influenced endemic cultures in places far from their origins.

Globalization has strongly influenced sports.

Globalisation and Environmental Stewardship: A Global Governance Perspective

The term globalization implies transformation. Cultural practices including traditional music can be lost or turned into a fusion of traditions. Globalization can trigger a state of emergency for the preservation of musical heritage. Archivists may attempt to collect, record, or transcribe repertoires before melodies are assimilated or modified, while local musicians may struggle for authenticity and to preserve local musical traditions.

Globalization can lead performers to discard traditional instruments. Fusion genres can become interesting fields of analysis. Music has an important role in economic and cultural development during globalization. Music genres such as jazz and reggae began locally and later became international phenomena. Globalization gave support to the world music phenomenon by allowing music from developing countries to reach broader audiences. Bourdieu claimed that the perception of consumption can be seen as self-identification and the formation of identity.

Musically, this translates into each individual having their own musical identity based on likes and tastes. These likes and tastes are greatly influenced by culture, as this is the most basic cause for a person's wants and behavior. The concept of one's own culture is now in a period of change due to globalization.

Also, globalization has increased the interdependency of political, personal, cultural, and economic factors. A UNESCO report [94] showed that cultural exchange is becoming more frequent from Eastern Asia, but that Western countries are still the main exporters of cultural goods. Between and , both North America's and the European Union 's shares of cultural exports declined while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America. Related factors are the fact that Asia's population and area are several times that of North America.

State of the Art and Perspectives, 1st Edition

Americanization is related to a period of high political American clout and of significant growth of America's shops, markets and objects being brought into other countries. Some critics of globalization argue that it harms the diversity of cultures. As a dominating country's culture is introduced into a receiving country through globalization, it can become a threat to the diversity of local culture. Some argue that globalization may ultimately lead to Westernization or Americanization of culture, where the dominating cultural concepts of economically and politically powerful Western countries spread and cause harm to local cultures.

Globalization is a diverse phenomenon which relates to a multilateral political world and to the increase of cultural objects and markets between countries. The Indian experience particularly reveals the plurality of the impact of cultural globalization. Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other".

Political globalization refers to the growth of the worldwide political system , both in size and complexity. That system includes national governments , their governmental and intergovernmental organizations as well as government-independent elements of global civil society such as international non-governmental organizations and social movement organizations.